Engine oil is used to lubricate mechanical parts of the engine and smooth its parts’ movement with the ease of making the sliding and moving contact better. This way, it reduces friction and reduces the production of heat. Engine oils come in different forms and different types according to their uses. It could be a Synthetic, Semi-synthetic, and Mineral oil concerning their formation. Let’s take a closer look at what are the formations of these engine oils, what exactly goes into the formation of the essential lubricants, and what role do their additives perform while their working and protecting engines.
Before we dwell deep into the discussion of the composition or formation of engine oils, this is mandatory to know that every engine oil is made of base oil and additives to make it perform better. Mineral, synthetic and semi-synthetic oils come with different viscosities, different roles, and uses, their formation and structure are different from each other. The base oil could either be refined crude petroleum or the polymers artificially produced in the laboratory.
Talking about Mineral oils, these are naturally occurring oils and extracted from crude oil. After their extraction and conveying to a refinery, these oils are employed to undergo refining processes with the intent of removing impurities. These oils generally consist of hydrocarbons and might also contain a small number of other compounds such as Sulphur or nitrogen. After the processing is done, additives are added to improve performance and make them efficient.
On the other hand, Synthetic oils are crafted chemically in the laboratory, with the fact that they can also come from refined petroleum. Refining these synthetic oils is a complex process rather than the processing of the mineral oils because it involves changing the structure of the hydrocarbons. These processes to obtain synthetic engine oils ensure that only the best molecules are acquired and there would be no impurities. During their processing, many additives are also added to make them more efficient and target-oriented. Synthetic oils are categorized as high-end oils that are bound to deliver higher performance and greater efficiency.
Talking about the general composition of engine oils, we have some numbers that categorize the proportion of every component that plays its part in making the final product as your car’s engine oil. Let’s see it further to make our minds clear.
Modern engine oils
Modern engine oils, like the BMW TwinPower 5W30, could be formed with different base oils or compounds and then additives are employed to perform a variety of tasks. High-performance engine oils could be achieved with a balanced formula containing the right base oils and the right additives combination. This way, the composition of the engine oil could be as follows:
The modern engine oils contain 78% base oil in its formation, 10% viscosity improvement additives to make it flow better and reach all sliding parts, 3% detergent substances that guarantee the cleanliness of the engine, 5% dispersant to disperse dirt particles and prevent sludge formation, 1% wear protection additives, and 3% other components.